45个Zypper命令来管理“Suse”Linux包管理

Zypper是用于安装,删除和更新SUSE的ZYpp软件包管理器的命令行界面。 ZYpp是包管理引擎,为两者提供动力

SUSE(软件和系统发展协会(德国),这意味着软件和系统开发,英语)的Linux位于由Novell带来了Linux内核之上。 SUSE有两个包。 其中之一是所谓的OpenSUSE,这是免费提供(免费的语音以及免费的葡萄酒)。 它是挤满了最新的应用程序支持一个社区驱动的项目,OpenSUSE系统的Linux的最新的稳定版本是13.2。 另一种是的SUSE Linux Enterprise是一个商业版Linux,专为企业和生产。 的SUSE Linux企业版配备了各种适合于生产环境的SUSE Linux企业版的最新的稳定版本是12的企业应用程序和功能。 您可能需要查看SUSE Linux Enterprise Server的详细安装说明:
  1. 安装SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12
zypper的 YaST可以包管理器SUSE Linux,这对RPM的顶级作品。 YaST将它代表另一个设置工具是一个工具,在openSUSESUSE企业版工程管理,安装和配置的SUSE Linux。 zypper的是安装,删除,修改SUSE ZYPP包管理器的命令行界面。ZYPP是包管理引擎,权力既zypper的的YaST。 下面这篇文章中,我们将看到在zypper的行动,这将是安装,更新,删除和做所有其他的事情的软件包管理器可以做英寸开始了… 重要提示 :记住所有这些命令都是为了全系统的变化,因此必须以root身份运行,否则此命令将失败。

获取基本帮助Zypper

1.无任何选项运行zypper的,会给你的所有全局选项和命令的列表。
# zypper
Usage:
zypper [--global-options] 
2.要获得特定命令的帮助说'中'(安装),运行下面的命令。
# zypper help in
OR
# zypper help install
install (in) [options] <capability|rpm_file_uri> ...
Install packages with specified capabilities or RPM files with specified
location. A capability is NAME[.ARCH][OP], where OP is one
of <, <=, =, >=, >.
Command options:
--from <alias|#|URI>    Select packages from the specified repository.
-r, --repo <alias|#|URI>    Load only the specified repository.
-t, --type            Type of package (package, patch, pattern, product, srcpackage).
Default: package.
-n, --name                  Select packages by plain name, not by capability.
-C, --capability            Select packages by capability.
-f, --force                 Install even if the item is already installed (reinstall),
downgraded or changes vendor or architecture.
--oldpackage            Allow to replace a newer item with an older one.
Handy if you are doing a rollback. Unlike --force
it will not enforce a reinstall.
--replacefiles          Install the packages even if they replace files from other,
already installed, packages. Default is to treat file conflicts
as an error. --download-as-needed disables the fileconflict check.
......
3.包搜索安装之前(说GNOME的桌面 )。
# zypper se gnome-desktop
Retrieving repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Debug' metadata ............................................................[done]
Building repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Debug' cache .................................................................[done]
Retrieving repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Non-Oss' metadata ......................................................... [done]
Building repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Non-Oss' cache ...............................................................[done]
Retrieving repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Oss' metadata ..............................................................[done]
Building repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Oss' cache ...................................................................[done]
Retrieving repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Update' metadata ...........................................................[done]
Building repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Update' cache ................................................................[done]
Retrieving repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Update-Non-Oss' metadata ...................................................[done]
Building repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Update-Non-Oss' cache ........................................................[done]
Loading repository data...
Reading installed packages...
S | Name                                  | Summary                                                   | Type      
--+---------------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------------+-----------
| gnome-desktop2-lang                   | Languages for package gnome-desktop2                      | package   
| gnome-desktop2                        | The GNOME Desktop API Library                             | package   
| libgnome-desktop-2-17                 | The GNOME Desktop API Library                             | package   
| libgnome-desktop-3-10                 | The GNOME Desktop API Library                             | package   
| libgnome-desktop-3-devel              | The GNOME Desktop API Library -- Development Files        | package   
| libgnome-desktop-3_0-common           | The GNOME Desktop API Library -- Common data files        | package   
| gnome-desktop-debugsource             | Debug sources for package gnome-desktop                   | package   
| gnome-desktop-sharp2-debugsource      | Debug sources for package gnome-desktop-sharp2            | package   
| gnome-desktop2-debugsource            | Debug sources for package gnome-desktop2                  | package   
| libgnome-desktop-2-17-debuginfo       | Debug information for package libgnome-desktop-2-17       | package   
| libgnome-desktop-3-10-debuginfo       | Debug information for package libgnome-desktop-3-10       | package   
| libgnome-desktop-3_0-common-debuginfo | Debug information for package libgnome-desktop-3_0-common | package   
| libgnome-desktop-2-17-debuginfo-32bit | Debug information for package libgnome-desktop-2-17       | package   
| libgnome-desktop-3-10-debuginfo-32bit | Debug information for package libgnome-desktop-3-10       | package   
| gnome-desktop-sharp2                  | Mono bindings for libgnome-desktop                        | package   
| libgnome-desktop-2-devel              | The GNOME Desktop API Library -- Development Files        | package   
| gnome-desktop-lang                    | Languages for package gnome-desktop                       | package   
| libgnome-desktop-2-17-32bit           | The GNOME Desktop API Library                             | package   
| libgnome-desktop-3-10-32bit           | The GNOME Desktop API Library                             | package   
| gnome-desktop                         | The GNOME Desktop API Library                             | srcpackage
4.获取关于模型软件包信息使用下面的命令(假设lamp_server)。
# zypper info -t pattern lamp_server
Loading repository data...
Reading installed packages...
Information for pattern lamp_server:
------------------------------------
Repository: openSUSE-13.2-Update
Name: lamp_server
Version: 20141007-5.1
Arch: x86_64
Vendor: openSUSE
Installed: No
Visible to User: Yes
Summary: Web and LAMP Server
Description: 
Software to set up a Web server that is able to serve static, dynamic, and interactive content (like a Web shop). This includes Apache HTTP Server, the database management system MySQL,
and scripting languages such as PHP, Python, Ruby on Rails, or Perl.
Contents:
S | Name                          | Type    | Dependency
--+-------------------------------+---------+-----------
| apache2-mod_php5              | package |           
| php5-iconv                    | package |           
i | patterns-openSUSE-base        | package |           
i | apache2-prefork               | package |           
| php5-dom                      | package |           
| php5-mysql                    | package |           
i | apache2                       | package |           
| apache2-example-pages         | package |           
| mariadb                       | package |           
| apache2-mod_perl              | package |           
| php5-ctype                    | package |           
| apache2-doc                   | package |           
| yast2-http-server             | package |           
| patterns-openSUSE-lamp_server | package |    
5.打开zypper的shell会话中运行以下命令。
# zypper shell
OR
# zypper sh
zypper> help
Usage:
zypper [--global-options] 
注:在zypper的壳式“ 帮助 ”获得的全局选项和命令的列表。

Zypper存储库管理

列出定义的存储库

6.使用zypper的回购zypper的LR命令列出所有定义的存储库。
# zypper repos
OR
# zypper lr
| Alias                     | Name                               | Enabled | Refresh
--+---------------------------+------------------------------------+---------+--------
1 | openSUSE-13.2-0           | openSUSE-13.2-0                    | Yes     | No     
2 | repo-debug                | openSUSE-13.2-Debug                | Yes     | Yes    
3 | repo-debug-update         | openSUSE-13.2-Update-Debug         | No      | Yes    
4 | repo-debug-update-non-oss | openSUSE-13.2-Update-Debug-Non-Oss | No      | Yes    
5 | repo-non-oss              | openSUSE-13.2-Non-Oss              | Yes     | Yes    
6 | repo-oss                  | openSUSE-13.2-Oss                  | Yes     | Yes    
7 | repo-source               | openSUSE-13.2-Source               | No      | Yes    
8 | repo-update               | openSUSE-13.2-Update               | Yes     | Yes    
9 | repo-update-non-oss       | openSUSE-13.2-Update-Non-Oss       | Yes     | Yes    
在表7列出zypper的URI。
# zypper lr -u
# | Alias                     | Name                               | Enabled | Refresh | URI                                                            
--+---------------------------+------------------------------------+---------+---------+----------------------------------------------------------------
1 | openSUSE-13.2-0           | openSUSE-13.2-0                    | Yes     | No      | cd:///?devices=/dev/disk/by-id/ata-VBOX_CD-ROM_VB2-01700376    
2 | repo-debug                | openSUSE-13.2-Debug                | Yes     | Yes     | http://download.opensuse.org/debug/distribution/13.2/repo/oss/ 
3 | repo-debug-update         | openSUSE-13.2-Update-Debug         | No      | Yes     | http://download.opensuse.org/debug/update/13.2/                
4 | repo-debug-update-non-oss | openSUSE-13.2-Update-Debug-Non-Oss | No      | Yes     | http://download.opensuse.org/debug/update/13.2-non-oss/        
5 | repo-non-oss              | openSUSE-13.2-Non-Oss              | Yes     | Yes     | http://download.opensuse.org/distribution/13.2/repo/non-oss/   
6 | repo-oss                  | openSUSE-13.2-Oss                  | Yes     | Yes     | http://download.opensuse.org/distribution/13.2/repo/oss/       
7 | repo-source               | openSUSE-13.2-Source               | No      | Yes     | http://download.opensuse.org/source/distribution/13.2/repo/oss/
8 | repo-update               | openSUSE-13.2-Update               | Yes     | Yes     | http://download.opensuse.org/update/13.2/                      
9 | repo-update-non-oss       | openSUSE-13.2-Update-Non-Oss       | Yes     | Yes     | http://download.opensuse.org/update/13.2-non-oss/        
8.列出优先库和列表按优先级。
# zypper lr -P
# | Alias                     | Name                               | Enabled | Refresh | Priority
--+---------------------------+------------------------------------+---------+---------+---------
1 | openSUSE-13.2-0           | openSUSE-13.2-0                    | Yes     | No      |   99    
2 | repo-debug                | openSUSE-13.2-Debug                | Yes     | Yes     |   99    
3 | repo-debug-update         | openSUSE-13.2-Update-Debug         | No      | Yes     |   99    
4 | repo-debug-update-non-oss | openSUSE-13.2-Update-Debug-Non-Oss | No      | Yes     |   99    
5 | repo-non-oss              | openSUSE-13.2-Non-Oss              | Yes     | Yes     |   85    
6 | repo-oss                  | openSUSE-13.2-Oss                  | Yes     | Yes     |   99    
7 | repo-source               | openSUSE-13.2-Source               | No      | Yes     |   99    
8 | repo-update               | openSUSE-13.2-Update               | Yes     | Yes     |   99    
9 | repo-update-non-oss       | openSUSE-13.2-Update-Non-Oss       | Yes     | Yes     |   99    

刷新存储库

9.使用命令zypper的刷新zypper的裁判刷新zypper的存储库。
# zypper refresh
OR
# zypper ref
Repository 'openSUSE-13.2-0' is up to date.
Repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Debug' is up to date.
Repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Non-Oss' is up to date.
Repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Oss' is up to date.
Repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Update' is up to date.
Repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Update-Non-Oss' is up to date.
All repositories have been refreshed.
10.要刷新特定的资源库说' 回购非OSS“,键入:
# zypper refresh repo-non-oss
Repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Non-Oss' is up to date.
Specified repositories have been refreshed.
11.要强制更新资料库说' 回购非OSS“,键入:
# zypper ref -f repo-non-oss 
Forcing raw metadata refresh
Retrieving repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Non-Oss' metadata ............................................................[done]
Forcing building of repository cache
Building repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Non-Oss' cache ............................................................[done]
Specified repositories have been refreshed.

修改存储库

在这里,我们使用'zypper的modifyrepo''zypper的先生 “命令来禁用,启用zypper的存储库。 12.前禁用库,您必须知道,在zypper的,每个库都有自己唯一的编号,用于启用或禁用的存储库。 比方说,你要禁用库“ 回购OSS',首先你需要它下面的命令数由打字禁用。
# zypper lr
# | Alias                     | Name                               | Enabled | Refresh
--+---------------------------+------------------------------------+---------+--------
1 | openSUSE-13.2-0           | openSUSE-13.2-0                    | Yes     | No     
2 | repo-debug                | openSUSE-13.2-Debug                | Yes     | Yes    
3 | repo-debug-update         | openSUSE-13.2-Update-Debug         | No      | Yes    
4 | repo-debug-update-non-oss | openSUSE-13.2-Update-Debug-Non-Oss | No      | Yes    
5 | repo-non-oss              | openSUSE-13.2-Non-Oss              | Yes     | Yes    
6 | repo-oss                  | openSUSE-13.2-Oss                  | No      | Yes    
7 | repo-source               | openSUSE-13.2-Source               | No      | Yes    
8 | repo-update               | openSUSE-13.2-Update               | Yes     | Yes    
9 | repo-update-non-oss       | openSUSE-13.2-Update-Non-Oss       | Yes     | Yes    
你在上面的输出中看到,该库' 回购OSS'有数字6,禁用此,你需要使用下面的命令行指定号码6。
# zypper mr -d 6
Repository 'repo-oss' has been successfully disabled.
13.要再次启用同一个资源库“ 回购OSS',它出现在6号(如上例所示)。
# zypper mr -e 6
Repository 'repo-oss' has been successfully enabled.
14.启用回购自动刷新和RPM文件' 缓存 '说' 回购非OSS'和设置其优先级的说85。
# zypper mr -rk -p 85 repo-non-oss
Repository 'repo-non-oss' priority has been left unchanged (85)
Nothing to change for repository 'repo-non-oss'.
15.禁用rpm文件缓存所有的存储库。
# zypper mr -Ka
RPM files caching has been disabled for repository 'openSUSE-13.2-0'.
RPM files caching has been disabled for repository 'repo-debug'.
RPM files caching has been disabled for repository 'repo-debug-update'.
RPM files caching has been disabled for repository 'repo-debug-update-non-oss'.
RPM files caching has been disabled for repository 'repo-non-oss'.
RPM files caching has been disabled for repository 'repo-oss'.
RPM files caching has been disabled for repository 'repo-source'.
RPM files caching has been disabled for repository 'repo-update'.
RPM files caching has been disabled for repository 'repo-update-non-oss'.
16.开启所有仓库rpm文件缓存。
# zypper mr -ka
RPM files caching has been enabled for repository 'openSUSE-13.2-0'.
RPM files caching has been enabled for repository 'repo-debug'.
RPM files caching has been enabled for repository 'repo-debug-update'.
RPM files caching has been enabled for repository 'repo-debug-update-non-oss'.
RPM files caching has been enabled for repository 'repo-non-oss'.
RPM files caching has been enabled for repository 'repo-oss'.
RPM files caching has been enabled for repository 'repo-source'.
RPM files caching has been enabled for repository 'repo-update'.
RPM files caching has been enabled for repository 'repo-update-non-oss'.
17.禁用rpm文件缓存远程仓库。
# zypper mr -Kt
RPM files caching has been disabled for repository 'repo-debug'.
RPM files caching has been disabled for repository 'repo-debug-update'.
RPM files caching has been disabled for repository 'repo-debug-update-non-oss'.
RPM files caching has been disabled for repository 'repo-non-oss'.
RPM files caching has been disabled for repository 'repo-oss'.
RPM files caching has been disabled for repository 'repo-source'.
RPM files caching has been disabled for repository 'repo-update'.
RPM files caching has been disabled for repository 'repo-update-non-oss'.
18.启用远程仓库rpm文件缓存。
# zypper mr -kt
RPM files caching has been enabled for repository 'repo-debug'.
RPM files caching has been enabled for repository 'repo-debug-update'.
RPM files caching has been enabled for repository 'repo-debug-update-non-oss'.
RPM files caching has been enabled for repository 'repo-non-oss'.
RPM files caching has been enabled for repository 'repo-oss'.
RPM files caching has been enabled for repository 'repo-source'.
RPM files caching has been enabled for repository 'repo-update'.
RPM files caching has been enabled for repository 'repo-update-non-oss'.

添加存储库

你可以利用任何两个命令的- 'zypper的addrepo''zypper的AR'。 您可以使用回购网址别名添加存储库。 19.添加库说:“http://download.opensuse.org/update/12.3/”。
# zypper ar http://download.opensuse.org/update/11.1/ update
Adding repository 'update' .............................................................................................................................................................[done]
Repository 'update' successfully added
Enabled     : Yes                                      
Autorefresh : No                                       
GPG check   : Yes                                      
URI         : http://download.opensuse.org/update/11.1/
20.重命名的存储库。 它将仅更改别名。 您可以使用命令'zypper的namerepo''zypper的NR'。 要重命名出现在10号(zypper的LR),以upd8回购又名变化别名,运行下面的命令。
# zypper nr 10 upd8
Repository 'update' renamed to 'upd8'.

删除存储库

21.删除的存储库。 它将从系统中删除存储库。 您可以使用命令'zypper的removerepo''zypper的RR“。 要删除的回购说'upd8“,运行下面的命令。
# zypper rr upd8
# Removing repository 'upd8' .........................................................................................[done]
Repository 'upd8' has been removed.

使用Zypper进行软件包管理

使用Zypper安装软件包

22. zypper的,我们可以安装基于能力的名包。 例如,要安装一个软件包使用功能名称(比如Mozilla Firefox浏览器 )。
# zypper in MozillaFirefox
Loading repository data...
Reading installed packages...
Resolving package dependencies...
The following 128 NEW packages are going to be installed:
adwaita-icon-theme at-spi2-atk-common at-spi2-atk-gtk2 at-spi2-core cantarell-fonts cups-libs desktop-file-utils fontconfig gdk-pixbuf-query-loaders gstreamer gstreamer-fluendo-mp3 
gstreamer-plugins-base gtk2-branding-openSUSE gtk2-data gtk2-immodule-amharic gtk2-immodule-inuktitut gtk2-immodule-thai gtk2-immodule-vietnamese gtk2-metatheme-adwaita 
gtk2-theming-engine-adwaita gtk2-tools gtk3-data gtk3-metatheme-adwaita gtk3-tools hicolor-icon-theme hicolor-icon-theme-branding-openSUSE libasound2 libatk-1_0-0 libatk-bridge-2_0-0 
libatspi0 libcairo2 libcairo-gobject2 libcanberra0 libcanberra-gtk0 libcanberra-gtk2-module libcanberra-gtk3-0 libcanberra-gtk3-module libcanberra-gtk-module-common libcdda_interface0 
libcdda_paranoia0 libcolord2 libdrm2 libdrm_intel1 libdrm_nouveau2 libdrm_radeon1 libFLAC8 libfreebl3 libgbm1 libgdk_pixbuf-2_0-0 libgraphite2-3 libgstapp-1_0-0 libgstaudio-1_0-0 
libgstpbutils-1_0-0 libgstreamer-1_0-0 libgstriff-1_0-0 libgsttag-1_0-0 libgstvideo-1_0-0 libgthread-2_0-0 libgtk-2_0-0 libgtk-3-0 libharfbuzz0 libjasper1 libjbig2 libjpeg8 libjson-c2 
liblcms2-2 libLLVM libltdl7 libnsssharedhelper0 libogg0 liborc-0_4-0 libpackagekit-glib2-18 libpango-1_0-0 libpciaccess0 libpixman-1-0 libpulse0 libsndfile1 libsoftokn3 libspeex1 
libsqlite3-0 libstartup-notification-1-0 libtheoradec1 libtheoraenc1 libtiff5 libvisual libvorbis0 libvorbisenc2 libvorbisfile3 libwayland-client0 libwayland-cursor0 libwayland-server0 
libX11-xcb1 libxcb-dri2-0 libxcb-dri3-0 libxcb-glx0 libxcb-present0 libxcb-render0 libxcb-shm0 libxcb-sync1 libxcb-util1 libxcb-xfixes0 libXcomposite1 libXcursor1 libXdamage1 libXevie1 
libXfixes3 libXft2 libXi6 libXinerama1 libxkbcommon-0_4_3 libXrandr2 libXrender1 libxshmfence1 libXtst6 libXv1 libXxf86vm1 Mesa Mesa-libEGL1 Mesa-libGL1 Mesa-libglapi0 
metatheme-adwaita-common MozillaFirefox MozillaFirefox-branding-openSUSE mozilla-nss mozilla-nss-certs PackageKit-gstreamer-plugin pango-tools sound-theme-freedesktop 
The following 10 recommended packages were automatically selected:
gstreamer-fluendo-mp3 gtk2-branding-openSUSE gtk2-data gtk2-immodule-amharic gtk2-immodule-inuktitut gtk2-immodule-thai gtk2-immodule-vietnamese libcanberra0 libpulse0 
PackageKit-gstreamer-plugin 
128 new packages to install.
Overall download size: 77.2 MiB. Already cached: 0 B  After the operation, additional 200.0 MiB will be used.
Continue? [y/n/? shows all options] (y): y
Retrieving package cantarell-fonts-0.0.16-1.1.noarch                                                                                                   (1/128),  74.1 KiB (115.6 KiB unpacked)
Retrieving: cantarell-fonts-0.0.16-1.1.noarch.rpm .........................................................................................................................[done (63.4 KiB/s)]
Retrieving package hicolor-icon-theme-0.13-2.1.2.noarch                                                                                                (2/128),  40.1 KiB ( 50.5 KiB unpacked)
Retrieving: hicolor-icon-theme-0.13-2.1.2.noarch.rpm ...................................................................................................................................[done]
Retrieving package sound-theme-freedesktop-0.8-7.1.2.noarch                                                                                            (3/128), 372.6 KiB (460.3 KiB unpacked)
23.安装一个软件包使用的版本(比如GCC)。
# zypper in 'gcc<5.1'
Loading repository data...
Reading installed packages...
Resolving package dependencies...
The following 13 NEW packages are going to be installed:
cpp cpp48 gcc gcc48 libasan0 libatomic1-gcc49 libcloog-isl4 libgomp1-gcc49 libisl10 libitm1-gcc49 libmpc3 libmpfr4 libtsan0-gcc49 
13 new packages to install.
Overall download size: 14.5 MiB. Already cached: 0 B  After the operation, additional 49.4 MiB will be used.
Continue? [y/n/? shows all options] (y): y
24.建筑安装包(比如GCC)(i586系统 )。
# zypper in gcc.i586
Loading repository data...
Reading installed packages...
Resolving package dependencies...
The following 13 NEW packages are going to be installed:
cpp cpp48 gcc gcc48 libasan0 libatomic1-gcc49 libcloog-isl4 libgomp1-gcc49 libisl10 libitm1-gcc49 libmpc3 libmpfr4 libtsan0-gcc49 
13 new packages to install.
Overall download size: 14.5 MiB. Already cached: 0 B  After the operation, additional 49.4 MiB will be used.
Continue? [y/n/? shows all options] (y): y
Retrieving package libasan0-4.8.3+r212056-2.2.4.x86_64                                                                                                  (1/13),  74.2 KiB (166.9 KiB unpacked)
Retrieving: libasan0-4.8.3+r212056-2.2.4.x86_64.rpm .......................................................................................................................[done (79.2 KiB/s)]
Retrieving package libatomic1-gcc49-4.9.0+r211729-2.1.7.x86_64                                                                                          (2/13),  14.3 KiB ( 26.1 KiB unpacked)
Retrieving: libatomic1-gcc49-4.9.0+r211729-2.1.7.x86_64.rpm ...............................................................................................................[done (55.3 KiB/s)]
25.安装包(说GCC)为特定的架构(比如i586系统 )和特定版本(比如<5.1),
# zypper in 'gcc.i586<5.1'
Loading repository data...
Reading installed packages...
Resolving package dependencies...
The following 13 NEW packages are going to be installed:
cpp cpp48 gcc gcc48 libasan0 libatomic1-gcc49 libcloog-isl4 libgomp1-gcc49 libisl10 libitm1-gcc49 libmpc3 libmpfr4 libtsan0-gcc49 
13 new packages to install.
Overall download size: 14.4 MiB. Already cached: 129.5 KiB  After the operation, additional 49.4 MiB will be used.
Continue? [y/n/? shows all options] (y): y
In cache libasan0-4.8.3+r212056-2.2.4.x86_64.rpm                                                                                                        (1/13),  74.2 KiB (166.9 KiB unpacked)
In cache libatomic1-gcc49-4.9.0+r211729-2.1.7.x86_64.rpm                                           (2/13),  14.3 KiB ( 26.1 KiB unpacked)
In cache libgomp1-gcc49-4.9.0+r211729-2.1.7.x86_64.rpm                                             (3/13),  41.1 KiB ( 90.7 KiB unpacked)
26.安装从库(Amarok的 )一包(比如libxine)。
# zypper in amarok upd:libxine1
Loading repository data...
Reading installed packages...
Resolving package dependencies...
The following 202 NEW packages are going to be installed:
amarok bundle-lang-kde-en clamz cups-libs enscript fontconfig gdk-pixbuf-query-loaders ghostscript-fonts-std gptfdisk gstreamer gstreamer-plugins-base hicolor-icon-theme 
hicolor-icon-theme-branding-openSUSE htdig hunspell hunspell-tools icoutils ispell ispell-american kde4-filesystem kdebase4-runtime kdebase4-runtime-branding-openSUSE kdelibs4 
kdelibs4-branding-openSUSE kdelibs4-core kdialog libakonadi4 l
.....
27.安装软件包使用名称(-n)(GIT)。
# zypper in -n git
Loading repository data...
Reading installed packages...
Resolving package dependencies...
The following 35 NEW packages are going to be installed:
cvs cvsps fontconfig git git-core git-cvs git-email git-gui gitk git-svn git-web libserf-1-1 libsqlite3-0 libXft2 libXrender1 libXss1 perl-Authen-SASL perl-Clone perl-DBD-SQLite perl-DBI 
perl-Error perl-IO-Socket-SSL perl-MLDBM perl-Net-Daemon perl-Net-SMTP-SSL perl-Net-SSLeay perl-Params-Util perl-PlRPC perl-SQL-Statement perl-Term-ReadKey subversion subversion-perl tcl 
tk xhost 
The following 13 recommended packages were automatically selected:
git-cvs git-email git-gui gitk git-svn git-web perl-Authen-SASL perl-Clone perl-MLDBM perl-Net-Daemon perl-Net-SMTP-SSL perl-PlRPC perl-SQL-Statement 
The following package is suggested, but will not be installed:
git-daemon 
35 new packages to install.
Overall download size: 15.6 MiB. Already cached: 0 B  After the operation, additional 56.7 MiB will be used.
Continue? [y/n/? shows all options] (y): y
28.使用通配符安装软件包。例如,安装所有php5软件包。
# zypper in php5*
Loading repository data...
Reading installed packages...
Resolving package dependencies...
Problem: php5-5.6.1-18.1.x86_64 requires smtp_daemon, but this requirement cannot be provided
uninstallable providers: exim-4.83-3.1.8.x86_64[openSUSE-13.2-0]
postfix-2.11.0-5.2.2.x86_64[openSUSE-13.2-0]
sendmail-8.14.9-2.2.2.x86_64[openSUSE-13.2-0]
exim-4.83-3.1.8.i586[repo-oss]
msmtp-mta-1.4.32-2.1.3.i586[repo-oss]
postfix-2.11.0-5.2.2.i586[repo-oss]
sendmail-8.14.9-2.2.2.i586[repo-oss]
exim-4.83-3.1.8.x86_64[repo-oss]
msmtp-mta-1.4.32-2.1.3.x86_64[repo-oss]
postfix-2.11.0-5.2.2.x86_64[repo-oss]
sendmail-8.14.9-2.2.2.x86_64[repo-oss]
postfix-2.11.3-5.5.1.i586[repo-update]
postfix-2.11.3-5.5.1.x86_64[repo-update]
Solution 1: Following actions will be done:
do not install php5-5.6.1-18.1.x86_64
do not install php5-pear-Auth_SASL-1.0.6-7.1.3.noarch
do not install php5-pear-Horde_Http-2.0.1-6.1.3.noarch
do not install php5-pear-Horde_Image-2.0.1-6.1.3.noarch
do not install php5-pear-Horde_Kolab_Format-2.0.1-6.1.3.noarch
do not install php5-pear-Horde_Ldap-2.0.1-6.1.3.noarch
do not install php5-pear-Horde_Memcache-2.0.1-7.1.3.noarch
do not install php5-pear-Horde_Mime-2.0.2-6.1.3.noarch
do not install php5-pear-Horde_Oauth-2.0.0-6.1.3.noarch
do not install php5-pear-Horde_Pdf-2.0.1-6.1.3.noarch
....
29.安装包(说lamp_server)使用模式 (组包)。
# zypper in -t pattern lamp_server
ading repository data...
Reading installed packages...
Resolving package dependencies...
The following 29 NEW packages are going to be installed:
apache2 apache2-doc apache2-example-pages apache2-mod_perl apache2-prefork patterns-openSUSE-lamp_server perl-Data-Dump perl-Encode-Locale perl-File-Listing perl-HTML-Parser 
perl-HTML-Tagset perl-HTTP-Cookies perl-HTTP-Daemon perl-HTTP-Date perl-HTTP-Message perl-HTTP-Negotiate perl-IO-HTML perl-IO-Socket-SSL perl-libwww-perl perl-Linux-Pid 
perl-LWP-MediaTypes perl-LWP-Protocol-https perl-Net-HTTP perl-Net-SSLeay perl-Tie-IxHash perl-TimeDate perl-URI perl-WWW-RobotRules yast2-http-server 
The following NEW pattern is going to be installed:
lamp_server 
The following 10 recommended packages were automatically selected:
apache2 apache2-doc apache2-example-pages apache2-mod_perl apache2-prefork perl-Data-Dump perl-IO-Socket-SSL perl-LWP-Protocol-https perl-TimeDate yast2-http-server 
29 new packages to install.
Overall download size: 7.2 MiB. Already cached: 1.2 MiB  After the operation, additional 34.7 MiB will be used.
Continue? [y/n/? shows all options] (y): 
30.安装包(说纳米 ),并一次性删除软件包(VI说)。
# zypper in nano -vi
Loading repository data...
Reading installed packages...
'-vi' not found in package names. Trying capabilities.
Resolving package dependencies...
The following 2 NEW packages are going to be installed:
nano nano-lang 
The following package is going to be REMOVED:
vim 
The following recommended package was automatically selected:
nano-lang 
2 new packages to install, 1 to remove.
Overall download size: 550.0 KiB. Already cached: 0 B  After the operation, 463.3 KiB will be freed.
Continue? [y/n/? shows all options] (y): 
...
31.安装一个rpm包(说teamviewer)。
# zypper in teamviewer*.rpm
Loading repository data...
Reading installed packages...
Resolving package dependencies...
The following 24 NEW packages are going to be installed:
alsa-oss-32bit fontconfig-32bit libasound2-32bit libexpat1-32bit libfreetype6-32bit libgcc_s1-gcc49-32bit libICE6-32bit libjpeg62-32bit libpng12-0-32bit libpng16-16-32bit libSM6-32bit 
libuuid1-32bit libX11-6-32bit libXau6-32bit libxcb1-32bit libXdamage1-32bit libXext6-32bit libXfixes3-32bit libXinerama1-32bit libXrandr2-32bit libXrender1-32bit libXtst6-32bit 
libz1-32bit teamviewer 
The following recommended package was automatically selected:
alsa-oss-32bit 
24 new packages to install.
Overall download size: 41.2 MiB. Already cached: 0 B  After the operation, additional 119.7 MiB will be used.
Continue? [y/n/? shows all options] (y): 
..

使用Zypper删除软件包

32.命令要删除任何包,你可以使用'zypper的删除 “或”zypper的RM“。例如,要删除一个包(说apache2),运行:
# zypper remove apache2
Or
# zypper rm apache2
Loading repository data...
Reading installed packages...
Resolving package dependencies...
The following 2 packages are going to be REMOVED:
apache2 apache2-prefork 
2 packages to remove.
After the operation, 4.2 MiB will be freed.
Continue? [y/n/? shows all options] (y): y
(1/2) Removing apache2-2.4.10-19.1 ........................................................................[done]
(2/2) Removing apache2-prefork-2.4.10-19.1 ................................................................[done]

使用Zypper更新软件包

33.更新所有软件包。 您可以使用命令'zypper的升级 “或”zypper的了 “。
# zypper up
OR
# zypper update
Loading repository data...
Reading installed packages...
Nothing to do.
34.更新特定软件包(说的Apache2OpenSSH)。
# zypper up apache2 openssh
Loading repository data...
Reading installed packages...
No update candidate for 'apache2-2.4.10-19.1.x86_64'. The highest available version is already installed.
No update candidate for 'openssh-6.6p1-5.1.3.x86_64'. The highest available version is already installed.
Resolving package dependencies...
Nothing to do.
35.安装包说,如果没有安装,如果安装的更新它(MariaDB的 )。
# zypper in mariadb
Loading repository data...
Reading installed packages...
'mariadb' is already installed.
No update candidate for 'mariadb-10.0.13-2.6.1.x86_64'. The highest available version is already installed.
Resolving package dependencies...
Nothing to do.

安装源和构建依赖关系

您可以使用'zypper的源安装 “或”zypper的SI“命令,从源代码编译包。 36.安装源软件包,并建立它们的依赖关系为一个包(比如MariaDB的 )。
# zypper si mariadb
Reading installed packages...
Loading repository data...
Resolving package dependencies...
The following 36 NEW packages are going to be installed:
autoconf automake bison cmake cpp cpp48 gcc gcc48 gcc48-c++ gcc-c++ libaio-devel libarchive13 libasan0 libatomic1-gcc49 libcloog-isl4 libedit-devel libevent-devel libgomp1-gcc49 libisl10 
libitm1-gcc49 libltdl7 libmpc3 libmpfr4 libopenssl-devel libstdc++48-devel libtool libtsan0-gcc49 m4 make ncurses-devel pam-devel readline-devel site-config tack tcpd-devel zlib-devel 
The following source package is going to be installed:
mariadb 
36 new packages to install, 1 source package.
Overall download size: 71.5 MiB. Already cached: 129.5 KiB  After the operation, additional 183.9 MiB will be used.
Continue? [y/n/? shows all options] (y): y
37.只安装一个包的来源(比如MariaDB的 )。
# zypper in -D mariadb
Loading repository data...
Reading installed packages...
'mariadb' is already installed.
No update candidate for 'mariadb-10.0.13-2.6.1.x86_64'. The highest available version is already installed.
Resolving package dependencies...
Nothing to do.
38.只有安装编译依赖的包(比如MariaDB的 )。
# zypper si -d mariadb
Reading installed packages...
Loading repository data...
Resolving package dependencies...
The following 36 NEW packages are going to be installed:
autoconf automake bison cmake cpp cpp48 gcc gcc48 gcc48-c++ gcc-c++ libaio-devel libarchive13 libasan0 libatomic1-gcc49 libcloog-isl4 libedit-devel libevent-devel libgomp1-gcc49 libisl10 
libitm1-gcc49 libltdl7 libmpc3 libmpfr4 libopenssl-devel libstdc++48-devel libtool libtsan0-gcc49 m4 make ncurses-devel pam-devel readline-devel site-config tack tcpd-devel zlib-devel 
The following package is recommended, but will not be installed due to conflicts or dependency issues:
readline-doc 
36 new packages to install.
Overall download size: 33.7 MiB. Already cached: 129.5 KiB  After the operation, additional 144.3 MiB will be used.
Continue? [y/n/? shows all options] (y): y

脚本和应用程序中的Zypper

39.安装包(说MariaDB的 )未经用户交互。
# zypper --non-interactive in mariadb
Loading repository data...
Reading installed packages...
'mariadb' is already installed.
No update candidate for 'mariadb-10.0.13-2.6.1.x86_64'. The highest available version is already installed.
Resolving package dependencies...
Nothing to do.
40.删除软件包(说MariaDB的 )未经用户交互。
# zypper --non-interactive rm mariadb
Loading repository data...
Reading installed packages...
Resolving package dependencies...
The following package is going to be REMOVED:
mariadb 
1 package to remove.
After the operation, 71.8 MiB will be freed.
Continue? [y/n/? shows all options] (y): y
(1/1) Removing mariadb-10.0.13-2.6.1 .............................................................................[done]
41.输出zypper的XML格式。
# zypper --xmlout

Usage:
zypper [--global-options] <command> [--command-options] [arguments]
Global Options
....
42.在生成安装安静的输出。
# zypper --quiet in mariadb
The following NEW package is going to be installed:
mariadb 
1 new package to install.
Overall download size: 0 B. Already cached: 7.8 MiB  After the operation, additional 71.8 MiB will be used.
Continue? [y/n/? shows all options] (y): 
...
43.在生成卸载安静的输出。
# zypper --quiet rm mariadb
44.自动同意许可证/协议。
# zypper patch --auto-agree-with-licenses
Loading repository data...
Reading installed packages...
Resolving package dependencies...
Nothing to do.

清理Zypper缓存和查看历史记录

45.如果你只想清理缓存zypper的,你可以使用下面的命令。
# zypper clean
All repositories have been cleaned up.
如果你要清洗一次,你可能愿意通过-all / -a与zypper的元数据和包缓存。
# zypper clean -a
All repositories have been cleaned up.
46.要通过zypper的查看任何安装,更新或删除的包的日志被记录在/ var /日志/ ZYPP /历史 。您可以使用它来查看或可以使用过滤器来获得自定义输出。
# cat /var/log/zypp/history
2015-05-07 15:43:03|install|boost-license1_54_0|1.54.0-10.1.3|noarch||openSUSE-13.2-0|0523b909d2aae5239f9841316dafaf3a37b4f096|
2015-05-07 15:43:03|install|branding-openSUSE|13.2-3.6.1|noarch||openSUSE-13.2-0|6609def94b1987bf3f90a9467f4f7ab8f8d98a5c|
2015-05-07 15:43:03|install|bundle-lang-common-en|13.2-3.3.1|noarch||openSUSE-13.2-0|ca55694e6fdebee6ce37ac7cf3725e2aa6edc342|
2015-05-07 15:43:03|install|insserv-compat|0.1-12.2.2|noarch||openSUSE-13.2-0|6160de7fbf961a279591a83a1550093a581214d9|
2015-05-07 15:43:03|install|libX11-data|1.6.2-5.1.2|noarch||openSUSE-13.2-0|f1cb58364ba9016c1f93b1a383ba12463c56885a|
2015-05-07 15:43:03|install|libnl-config|3.2.25-2.1.2|noarch||openSUSE-13.2-0|aab2ded312a781e93b739b418e3d32fe4e187020|
2015-05-07 15:43:04|install|wireless-regdb|2014.06.13-1.2|noarch||openSUSE-13.2-0|be8cb16f3e92af12b5ceb977e37e13f03c007bd1|
2015-05-07 15:43:04|install|yast2-trans-en_US|3.1.0-2.1|noarch||openSUSE-13.2-0|1865754e5e0ec3c149ac850b340bcca55a3c404d|
2015-05-07 15:43:04|install|yast2-trans-stats|2.19.0-16.1.3|noarch||openSUSE-13.2-0|b107d2b3e702835885b57b04d12d25539f262d1a|
2015-05-07 15:43:04|install|cracklib-dict-full|2.8.12-64.1.2|x86_64||openSUSE-13.2-0|08bd45dbba7ad44e3a4837f730be76f55ad5dcfa|
......

使用Zypper升级

47.您可以使用命令zypper的升级当前的SUSE Linux到最新版本“ 的dist-升级 ”选项。
# zypper dist-upgrade
You are about to do a distribution upgrade with all enabled repositories. Make sure these repositories are compatible before you continue. See 'man zypper' for more information about this command.
Building repository 'openSUSE-13.2-0' cache .....................................................................[done]
Retrieving repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Debug' metadata ............................................................[done]
Building repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Debug' cache .................................................................[done]
Retrieving repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Non-Oss' metadata ..........................................................[done]
Building repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Non-Oss' cache ...............................................................[done]
目前为止就这样了。希望这篇文章能帮助您在专门管理你SUSE系统服务器的新手。如果你觉得我留下了某些命令(人类是错误的),你可以提供我们在评论中的反馈,以便我们可以更新文章。保持联系,保持评论,请继续关注。 Kudos!